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Refinement of later-stage concepts, technologies, policies, practices, and/or programs that are ready for testing, initial implementation, and/or refinement. These support further development of ideas that have: 1) completed research and design work that indicates the idea has promise and value; or 2) shown some early promise but have yet to fully pilot.

Development of early stage ideas, including applied research, planning and/or feasibility studies; the design of prototypes, processes, model policies or pilot programs. These are pre-pilot stage ideas and support projects to assess whether an interesting idea shows promise and value.

Expanding technologies, policies, practices, and/or programs that have shown promise in initial testing and piloting, and are ready for growth, diffusion, and/or replication to reach additional beneficiaries. These awards are for mature ideas and projects that have a validated proof of concept in at least one context or site/location, and that have shown strong promise for scale and sustainability.